Position Statement on the Use of Vitamins and Minerals in Skeletal Health (2018)

The desire to maintain health, including bone health, into old age has led to almost one-half of the population and 70% of older adults in the United States and up to 26% in Europe using dietary supplements. Dietary supplements allow for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that can assess a single nutrient. However, in nutrient studies, it is difficult to account for the impact of food and food fortification on skeletal outcomes. The ability to accurately quantify the effect of an individual nutrient on bone health is confounded by methodological issues and the time lag to assess outcomes.